The Night of Qadr is a very great night of the blessed month of Ramadan. It is “the Night of Greatness.” In it, Allah brought down a great Book- the Qur’an. Each year, when the Night of Qadr occurs, great angels and great mercies descend to earth.
In Surat al- Qadr, Allah, ta^ala, said:
إِنَّا أَنزَلْنَاهُ فِي لَيْلَةِ الْقَدْرِ
This Ayah means: The whole Qur’an was brought down in its entirety during the Night of Qadr. The words of the Qur’an were copied from the Guarded Tablet and it was Jibril who brought it down as a complete book to Baytul-^Izzah in the first sky. This occurred on the Night of Qadr of the month of Ramadan in the first year when Jibril brought the revelation to the Prophet. The following day, Jibril came with the first five verses of Suratul-^Alaq. With this the prophethood of our master Muhammad commenced.
It is not a condition that the Night of Qadr must lie on the 27th or the 29th of the month of Ramadan, although we know from some hadiths that this is most likely the case. Since the Night of Qadr may lie on any of the nights of Ramadan, the Muslims should put forth effort to pray each night of Ramadan, seeking the promised reward for performing the optional prayers during that night. Making the extra effort in performing acts of worship especially during the last ten days of Ramadan is highly recommended, since in most cases, the Night of Qadr lies during one of those nights.
The second verse:
وَمَا أَدْرَاكَ مَا لَيْلَةُ الْقَدْرِ
Literally, this Ayah means: “How would you know what the Night of Qadr is?” This means that before Allah informed you, you did not know what the merit of that Night is. This Ayah is truly a question which emphasizes the high status of this night and encourages the person to seek its goodness.
The third verse:
لَيْلَةُ الْقَدْرِ خَيْرٌ مِنْ أَلْفِ شَهْرٍ
is the answer to the previous question. It means: “The reward one receives for spending this night in acts of worship is so great. A person may not receive a similar reward in spending one thousand months in acts of worship (which do not have the night of al–Qadr in them)“
The fourth verse:
تَنَزَّلُ الْمَلائِكَةُ وَالرُّوحُ فِيهَا بِإِذْنِ رَبِّهِم مِن كُلِّ أَمْرٍ
means: “The angels (in great numbers), including Jibril, descend from the sky to the earth during that night, and Allah gives them the knowledge of what is going to happen during the coming year“. It was narrated from the route of Abu Hurayrah that the number of angels who would descend to earth during that night may exceed the number of pebbles on earth.
Al-Hakim narrated that the Prophet said: during the Night of Qadr Jibril descends to earth with a large group of angels who make supplication (du^a’) for every praying slave standing upright or sitting down praising Allah. In another narration it is mentioned that these angels descend to earth at sunset and remain until dawn-break.
The fifth verse:
سَلامٌ هِيَ حَتَّى مَطْلَعِ الْفَجْرِ
means: “The night is full of safety, goodness, and blessings for the obedient believer until the dawn-break“.
It is a very good sign for one to see the Night of Qadr and make supplication (du^a’). A very great deal of goodness is hoped for this person, and, insha’allah, the supplication would be fulfilled. At-Tirmidhiyy narrated from ^A’ishah that she said: “O Prophet of Allah, if I encounter the Night of Qadr, what supplication should I make?. The Prophet answered her: “Say:
اللهمَّ إنَّكَ عفُوٌّ تُحِبُّ العفوَ فاعفُ عنَّا
which means: “O Allah, You are the One who generously forgives and You love forgiveness, so forgive me“. May Allah bless us with seeing this great Night and making supplication in it.