Makkiyyan by consensus.
Comprised of thirty (30) ayahs.
1) Glorified and Transcendent is He Who Controls and subjugates His Dominion; and He has Power over all created things;
The Ayah means Allah's Generosities are perpetual and He is Glorified and Transcends above being attributed with the attributes of the creation. He Owns, Controls and Subjugates the Dominion which includes the Heavens and Earths and what is in them and between them; the entire creation is subjugated by His Power and He does in His Dominion whatever He Wills and Rules over His Creations as He Wills and makes esteemed and degrades whomever He Wills and everything is in need of Him and every matter is easy for Him. Allah has Power over all created things and no one stops His Doings and nothing makes Him Powerless and nothing hinders His Decree and nothing prevents what He Gives.
2) He Who created Death and Life, that He may try which of you is best in deed: and He is the Exalted Mighty One Who severely punishes the disobedient, and is All-Forgiving;
The Ayah means Allah is the Creator of life and death; He Causes death and Gives life up to a pre-set time to whomever He Willed. He made this world an abode for life and cessation of being and made the Hereafter an abode for recompense and everlastingness so He may try you whether or not you fulfill His Orders and Prohibitions; thus appears from you that which He Knew in Eternity will occur from you, and accordingly will recompense your deeds, and appears from you that which reveals who among you is more and quicker in obedience and who is more sincere and correct. Sincerity is for the deed to be done seeking the reward from Allah alone and correctness is to conform to the Sunnah. Allah gave you life by which you are enabled to perform deeds and directed death at you which urges you to chose doing good over bad deeds since what comes after death is Resurrection and the inevitable recompense. Allah is Al-^Aziz that is the One who Defeats His enemies and Has the Ultimately Exalted Might Whose Punishment is severe to those who disobey and oppose His Order. He is Al-Ghafur that is He Forgives the one who repents from his sins.
3) He Who created the seven heavens one above another: O son of Adam you will not see disproportion in the Creation of Ar-Rahman. So turn your vision repeatedly: do you see any flaw?
Allah created and brought from non existence into existence seven skies one on top of another as confirmed in the Hadith of Al-'Isra' ( the Night Journey) reported by Al-Bukhari and Muslim. Al-Bukhari said at-tafawut means difference in its parts that result in incoherence. Hence the Ayah reflects the meaning that the son of Adam cannot see any contradiction, flaw or error in any of the creations of Allah Who is Wise and Mighty; this does not mean that the creations of Allah do not differ from one another in form and characteristics, rather the difference spoken of pertains to what negates the Wisdom of the Creator and Allah the Exalted is Wise and is clear from erring.Hamzah and Al-Kisa'iyy recited tafawwut with a double waw without alif and the rest recited tafawut.Then Allah the Exalted ordered the sons of Adam to repeatedly look at His creations to take heed and appreciate the Power of Allah and established that the son of Adam cannot see any crevices or flaw. Abu ^Amr, Hamzah, Al-Kisa'iyy and Hisham recited hattara instead of hal tara.
4) Turn your vision twice again: your vision will come back to you failing to see any flaw, tired and worn out.
Allah ordered the son of Adam to look twice because one might not see any flaw the first time, so Allah established that even if he looks twice still he will not detect any flaw; rather his vision will return toiled and tired without seeing fault or difference in the parts of the sky.
5) And We (Allah) have adorned the lowest heaven with glittering stars from which meteors separate and launch to drive away the eavesdropping devils, and have prepared for them in the Hereafter the torture of the Blazing Fire.
Allah beautified the sky which we see closest to Earth with stars that are illuminated and made out of them meteors that separate from them and pelt the devils who eavesdrop. Allah has prepared a fervid Fire for the devils in the Hereafter over and above being burnt with meteors in this world.
6) For those humans and jinn who disbelieve in their Lord is the torture of Hell: and such ending is evil.
Allah has prepared for the blasphemers among the humans and jinn, in the Hereafter, the torture of Jahannam which is a greatly fervid blazing Fire; the Hadith that was narrated by At-Tirmidhiyy establishes that the Fire of Hell was lit for one thousand years until it turned red in color and one thousand years until it turned white in color and one thousand years until it turned black in color, so it is pitch black and dark. To end up in Hellfire is such an evil place to which the blasphemers return. 7) When the blasphemers are cast therein, they will hear its terrible braying-like sound drawing in as it boils and blazes forth,
When the blasphemers are thrown into Jahannam similar to throwing logs in a great fire, they shall hear for Jahannam a terrible braying-like sound—similar to that of a donkey—drawing in strongly as a result of its fervent boiling.
8) Almost bursting with fury toward the blasphemers: Every time a Group of them is cast therein, the Keeper-Angels will ask out of reprimand, "Did no Prophet come to Warn you?"
Jahannam will be almost bursting with anger—a simile of its fervid boiling– toward the blasphemers. With each batch of blasphemers thrown into Jahannam the Angels charged with jahannam—Malik and his aids—will reprimand them by asking them whether or not a Messenger warned them in this world against the torture that they now encounter—thereby adding to their torture.
9) The blasphemers will say: "Yes indeed; a Warner did come to us, but we belied him and said, 'Allah never sent down any Message to you: you are nothing but in a confused state of ignorance!'"
The blasphemers admit on the Day of Judgment that Allah the Exalted Has sent them Messengers who warned them against the situation they now encounter and also admit that they belied them. They told the Messenger sent to them, 'Allah has not revealed to you any of what you claim among promise of reward and threat of punishment and other than that'. Abu Hayyan said in his book of interpretation of Qur'an that the saying of Allah إِنْ أَنتُمْ إِلا فِي ضَلالٍ كَبِيرٍ could have two meanings: 1) The blasphemers address the Messengers who were sent to warn them first by belying them and denying that they received any revelation and second by accusing them of ignorance and of being in a state of utter confusion. 2) It is possible that the statement is made by the Angels in charge of torturing the blasphemers in Hellfire with which they address the blasphemers reprimanding them and informing them that they are now in a state of destructive torture that emanated from their misguidance in this life.
10) They will also say: "Had we but listened or used our mind, we should now not be among the occupants of the Blazing Fire or deserving perpetuity therein!"
The blasphemers, while in Hellfire, will say to the Angels in charge of keeping Jahannam, ' only if we had listened to the Messengers the way the seekers of truth would listen or had we used our minds to think about what the Messengers were saying we would not have been now in Hellfire deserving to be therein for ever'.
11) They will then confess their blasphemy of belying the Prophets: but useless will be their confession and far will the occupants of the Blazing Fire be from the Mercy of Allah!
The blasphemers admit their blasphemy of belying the Messengers, but their admission will not help them and will not save them from the torture of Allah. The blasphemers doomed to Hellfire will be supplicated against to be what they are, that is deprived and far from the Mercy of Allah .Abu Ja^far and Al-Kisa'iyy recited with a dammah on the Ha'.
12) As for the believers who fear their Lord in seclusion as they did openly, for them is Forgiveness and Paradise.
After Allah the Exalted mentioned the threat of torturing the blasphemers Allah mentioned the promise of reward for the believers. The believers who fear their Lord regarding the matters and situations of the Hereafter of which they had been informed, or they fear Him while they are away in seclusion from the eyes of the people, and believed in Him, and obeyed Him secretly as well as openly, they will be forgiven by Allah for their sins and will be rewarded Paradise.
13) And whether you conceal your speech or announce it, Allah certainly has complete knowledge, of the good and evil secrets of all hearts.
Allah addresses the people that whether they conceal or declare their speech Allah knows what is in their hearts among good and evil, hence, whatever they utter is known to Allah. The Ayah reveals that both matters, whatever said openly or kept hidden, are equally known to Allah.Ibn Al-Jawziyy said that Ibn ^Abbas said: 'This Ayah was revealed about the blasphemers who associated partners with Allah. They used to slander the Messenger of Allah, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, and Jibril would inform him about what they said, so they would tell one another to keep their saying concealed so that Muhammad's God would not hear.'
14) Should He not know, – that which He created? And He is the One Who Endows Generosities upon His slaves and nothing escapes His Knowledge!
The Ayah presents an interrogative that negates that Allah does not Hear, thereby confirming that Allah the Exalted surrounds with His Knowledge the concealed and apparent matters and what the creations reveal or hide. How could it be otherwise, knowing that Allah is the One who made things exist from a state of nonexistence, and He is the One who is Generous to His slaves secretly when they do not anticipate, and He is the One who Knows the reality of all things and nothing is kept hidden from His knowledge.
15) Allah is the One Who has made the earth manageable for you, so walk through its tracts and eat the lawful Sustenance which He provides: but to Him you shall return and be resurrected for settlement of account.
Allah is the One who made the Earth manageable for the people to inhabit and be able to walk on it, dig wells, channel springs and rivers, construct buildings, plant seeds and trees and the like. Had Earth been a solid rock none of that would have been manageable. Allah ordered the people to walk through its tracts and it was said through its mountains and it was said through its sides. Al-Bukhari said, 'manakibiha ( مَنَاكِبِهَا) means its sides'. The underlying meaning is that Allah is the One who facilitated for you to walk through its mountains which reflect additional meaning of extreme facility. Also Allah ordered the people to eat from the lawful sustenance that Allah provides. Allah informs the people that they shall return to Him on the Day of Judgment and that they shall be resurrected from their graves to stand for account of their deeds and for recompense.
16) Do you feel safe that Jibril who is in heaven will not cause earth to cave in underneath you and swallow you up and shake back and forth over you?
Allah scared the blasphemers of Makkah by addressing them that do you feel safe from Jibril who is in heaven, the Angel in charge of punishment, to not make Earth cave in under you and sink below just as it did underneath Qarun and underneath the people of Lut in their cities. Allah the Exalted with His Power causes the Earth to shake at the time of caving in until it throws the blasphemers downward and it becomes over them moving back and forth. When explaining this Ayah the scholars of interpretation highlighted that Allah the Exalted is clear from being attributed with places, directions, bodily attributes and all attributes of the creations. Hence Allah is clear from residing in the sky, sitting on Al-^Arsh or any other place. Allah exists without a place or a direction. Al-Hafidh Al-^Iraqi, in his book Al-Amali, when explaining the Hadith:
إ رْحَمُوا مَّن فِي الأَرْض َيرْحَمكُمْ مَّن فِي السَّمَاء
said: 'The other narration أَهلُْ السَّمَاء reveals that the meaning of مَّن فِي السَّمَاء is the Angels.'
17) Or do you feel safe that Jibril Who is in Heaven will not send against you a violent wind that showers you with stones, so that you shall know—when knowing will not help– how true was My warning?
Moreover, Allah addressed them that do you feel safe from Jibril who is in Heaven, the Angel in charge of punishment, to not send against you from Heaven a strong wind with stones as he did against the people of Lut and the people of the Elephant. Indeed, you blasphemers shall know, as you delve in torture and when knowing shall not help you, the consequence of My Warning and that you belied it and rejected My Messenger.
18) But indeed people before the blasphemers of Makkah belied the Messengers: then how truthful did they find My torture of them?
The blasphemers of the previous nations, before those of Makkah, such as the people of Noah, ^Ad, Thamud, Lut, Madyan, and Pharaoh did belie the message of the Messengers and indeed did find the torture of Allah a true matter.
19) Do the blasphemers not see the birds above them, spreading and folding in their wings? Nothing keeps them from falling except (Allah) Ar-Rahman: Indeed Allah Knows all things.
After Allah the Exalted warned them against the caving in of Earth and the wind He cautioned them to take heed in the masterly creation of the birds. Has the blasphemers not seen how the birds fly in the air spreading and folding in their wings as they fly—as Al-Bukhari and Mujahid explained– without falling down despite their heavy weights and large bodies? It is Allah's Power that protects them and keeps them from falling. Indeed Allah knows all things and nothing escapes His Knowledge.
20) O blasphemers, who is there as supporters who can stop and avert the torture from you if it comes, besides (Allah) Ar-Rahman? The blasphemers are but in delusion.
The Ayah presents an interrogative addressing and confirming that O blasphemers there are no supporters for you who can stop and avert the torture from you when it befalls you. Allah is the true supporter, but the blasphemers are drowning in delusion thinking that what they worship other than Allah will benefit or harm them or make them closer to Allah in acceptance.
21) O blasphemers, who is there that can give you sustenance if Allah were to withhold His provision? No, the blasphemers persist in impiety and departure from the Truth.
O blasphemers no one can give you sustenance if Allah withholds the reasons of sustenance such as rain and vegetation. The blasphemers persist on their blasphemy and denial, although the truth stands out crystal clear, and arrogantly reject and depart from the truth.
22) Is then one who walks with his face lowered, better guided, – or one who walks looking ahead on a Straight path?
Allah the Exalted sets in this Ayah an example for both the believers and the blasphemers. Which of the two, the person who walks with his face lowered not looking ahead and right and left maintains a swift path free of pitfalls, or the one who walks headforemost looking ahead and right and left? This is what the blasphemer does, he indulges in blasphemy and sins in this world tripping over pitfalls one after another and in the Hereafter he shall be assembled dragged on his face. Whereas the believer sees his path clearly through adhering to the rules of the religion, thereby escaping the pitfalls, and will be a winner in the Hereafter.Qunbul recited Siratin ( صِرَاطٍ ) with sin.
23) O Muhammad say to the blasphemers: "Allah is the One Who has created you and your faculties of hearing, seeing, and understanding: little thanks it is you give.
Allah the Exalted ordered Prophet Muhammad to tell the blasphemers that Allah is the one who created you and created for you your ears, eyes and hearts with which you hear, see, and comprehend, but you give little thanks to Allah for His endowments.Thanking Allah for His endowments entails not using them in sinning but to use them in a manner acceptable by Allah. But you blasphemers have not used these endowments in manners accepted by Allah; hence, you have not been thankful to Allah at all.
24) O Muhammad say to the blasphemers: "It is Allah Who has spread you out through the earth, and to Him you shall be resurrected and assembled."
Allah the Exalted ordered Prophet Muhammad to tell the blasphemers that Allah is the one who spread you out on Earth and that you shall be resurrected on the Day of Judgment and be gathered from your graves for settlement of account and requital. The meaning encompasses that the One who Has the Power to create you Has the Power to resurrect you and thus it entails a refutation of those who deny the Resurrection and Assembly.
25) The blasphemers mockingly ask: When will this promise of torture be fulfilled? – If you are telling the truth.
The blasphemers who deny the Resurrection and Assembly shall mockingly say: ' if you are truthful, when is the Day of Judgment and when the torture with which you are threatening us is.'
26) O Muhammad say: " Allah alone has the knowledge of the time of the Day of Judgment: I am only to warn you and plainly convey to you the laws."
Allah answered them by ordering Prophet Muhammad to tell the blasphemers that Allah alone knows the time of occurrence of the Day of Judgment, and that the Prophet only warns them against a severe torture for their blasphemy, and clearly conveys to them the rules of the religion.
27) When they see the torture on the Day of Judgment, grieved will be the faces of the blasphemers, and the Angels of torture will say to them: "This is the torture fulfilled, which you were calling for!"
On the Day of Judgment when the blasphemers see the promised torture close to them their faces will be grieved and blackened with sadness just like the one driven to be killed. The Angels in charge of torture will add to their grief by telling them that this is the torture you have been asking for and rushing to have—as per Ya^qub's recitation of (تَدعُونَ ) with a single dal—or they will tell them face the torture that you have been lying about and believing that if you die you will not be resurrected—as per the recitation of the rest of the reciters of (تَدَّعُونَ) with a double dal.
28) O Muhammad say to the blasphemers: "Whether Allah causes me and the believers with me to die—as you aspire–, or if He bestows His Mercy on us, – yet who can rescue the blasphemers from a grievous torture?"
Allah ordered Prophet Muhammad to tell those among his people who associated partners with Allah and wished the death of the Prophet that do you see if Allah makes me and the believers with me die or keeps us alive and do not torture us, who then will protect you and avert from you the painful torture due to your blasphemy? The death or life of the Prophet and the believers does not rescue the blasphemers from the torture, hence you do not need to ask for a sooner occurrence of the torture and the Day of Judgment, rather their occurrence constitute a great hardship on you.
29) O Muhammad say: "He is (Allah) Ar-Rahman: We have believed in Him, and on Him we have relied: So, soon you will know– as you encounter the torture– which of us is in clear misguidance."
Allah ordered Prophet Muhammad to say: ' Allah is the One whom we worship and clear from all non-befitting attributes and call upon you to worship. We believed in Him, and we did not associate anything with Him, and we relied upon Him in all our affairs and He is the One Who truly Benefits and Harms. O you who associate partners with Allah, once you delve into the torture you shall realize who was misguided you or us?'
30) O Muhammad say to the blasphemers: "O people of Quraysh, tell me if your water be some morning lost in the underground earth, who then can supply you with clear-flowing water except Allah? So how dare you deny that He will resurrect you?"
Allah ordered Prophet Muhammad to say to those who associated partners with Allah: ' tell me o people of Quraysh, if you wake up to find your water has sunk into Earth and you cannot reach it with your hands or lifting buckets, who else but Allah has the power to make visible water run in a manner accessible to the hands? so how could you deny that Allah has the Power to resurrect you?'It was said that this Ayah was recited before an atheist so he said: ' the water can be fetched using shovels and axes', he lost his vision and became blind the same evening. We seek refuge with Allah from such daring remarks about Allah and His Ayas and we ask Allah to preserve for us our state of belief and to successfully end our lives and to admit us into Paradise along with the meritorious. Amin.