After the great Battle of Badr God exposed the treachery of the Jewish tribes of Madinah who had made a treaty with the Muslims. They were jealous, felt threatened by the victorious Muslims. Hence, they began to break the terms of the treaty.
The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, gathered them in the marketplace of Qaynaqa^ and said (what means):
“O Jews, beware of the torture of God and do not let the torture that befell Quraysh fall on you. Embrace Islam because you know that I am a prophet sent with a message; you find that in your book.”
However, the Jews, in general, were too stubborn and arrogant to accept the truth. The Jews of Qaynaqa^ were from the rich people of Madinah and had fortresses there. In spite of the advice of the Prophet to them, they continued practicing evil behavior and annoying Muslims. One day, one Arab woman sold her goods in the market of Qaynaqa^. She sat at a goldsmith’s shop. A group of Jews came to her, started bothering her, and asked her to uncover parts of her body. She, of course, refused. The goldsmith tied parts of her dress to her back. When she stood up her private parts became exposed. The Jews laughed at her and mocked her. She screamed. A Muslim man came to the rescue. A fight occurred in which this Muslims Killed the Jewish goldsmith. The Jews gathered around the Muslim and killed him.
Quickly the Jews rushed to their castles in preparation for war and shielded themselves by the fortresses. The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, besieged them for fifteen nights and no one could leave. They then accepted the judgment of the Prophet ﷺ and surrendered. A hypocrite named ^Abdullah ibn Ubayy interceded for them and insisted until the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, spared them from being killed. The Prophet ﷺ then ordered them to leave Madinah.
^Abdullah ibn Ubayy was a sly character who caused great harm to the Prophet ﷺ and other Muslims. Before the Prophet immigrated to Madinah, the people of Madinah were preparing to crown him as the ruler of Madinah. When the Prophet ﷺ became the ruler instead, ^Abdullah ibn Ubayy was filled with resentment. After some time, ^Abdullah appeared to enter Islam and prayed with the Muslims. The Prophet ﷺ took him to be a Muslim as Islamic law dictated. He was truly the head of the hypocrites of Madinah, as God revealed later.