Al- Fiqh Al-Akbar
The great Imam Abu Hanifah An-Nu^man said in Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar:
The basis of Tawhid1 and what constitutes a valid belief is for one to say I believe in
Allah, His Angels, His Books, His Messengers, Resurrection after death, Destiny2
both good and evil and that it is created by Allah, the Settlement of Accounts on the
Day of Judgment, the Balance, Paradise and Hellfire. All are true matters.
Allah, the Exalted, is One not in the context of numbers but with the meaning that
He has no partners. Allah said in Surah Al-Ikhlas:
قُلْ هُوَ اللَّهُ أَحَدٌ اللَّهُ الصَّمَدُ لَمْ يَلِدْ وَلَمْ يُولَدْ وَلَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ كُفُوًا أَحَدٌ
This means: Say (O Muhammad) He is Allah, the One clear of partners and anything
Allah is the One needed by all and He needs none. He does not beget children and He is not begotten.
And there is none, in any way, similar to Him.
He does not resemble any of His creations, and nothing among His creations is like
Him. He existed Eternally3 and exists Everlastingly4 having His Names and
Attributed with the Attributes of His Self5 and the Attributes of His Doings. As to
the Attributes of His Self they are such as Life, Power, Knowledge, Speech,
Hearing, Sight and Will.
As to the Attributes of His doings they are such as Creating, Giving Sustenance, Insha’-Creating, Ibda^-Creating, Sun^-Creating and other than that among the Attributes of His Doings.
He existed Eternally and exists Everlastingly having His Names and Attributed
with His Attributes. He did not acquire a Name or an Attribute that He did not have.
He is Knowledgeable Eternally and Everlastingly by His Knowledge.
The Knowledge is His Eternal Attribute. He is Powerful by His Power. The Power is His
Eternal Attribute. He Speaks by His Speech. The Speech is His Eternal Attribute.
He Creates by His Creating. The Creating is His Eternal Attribute. He Does things
by His Doings. The Doing is His Eternal Attribute. The Doer is Allah, the Exalted.
The Doing is His Eternal Attribute and what is done is a created matter. The Doing
of Allah, the Exalted, is not created. His Attributes are Eternal without a beginning and not created. The one who claims they have a beginning or are created or doubts
or wavers about them, indeed is a blasphemer.
The Qur’an is The Speech of Allah. It is written in the Books of Qur’an, memorized
in the hearts, recited by the tongues and descended onto the Prophet sallallahu
^alayhi wa sallam. Our utterance of the Qur’an is created and our writing it is
created and the Qur’an is NOT created.
What Allah has mentioned in the Qur’an predicating about Musa and other Prophets, sallallahu ^alayhim wa sallam, and about Pharaoh and Iblis, all of that is the Speech of Allah, the Exalted, predicating about them. The Speech of Allah, the Exalted, is not created. The speech of Musa and the other creations is created. The Qur’an is the Speech of Allah and it is Eternal without a beginning, hence it is not their speech. Musa, peace be upon him, heard
the Speech of Allah, the exalted, as Allah, the Exalted, said:
وكلم لله موسى تكليمًا
Which means: Allah Spoke to Musa who heard the Eternal Speech of Allah.
Allah,the Exalted, was Attributed with Speech Eternally and yet had not spoken to
Musa. Allah, the Exalted,was Attributed with Creating Eternally and yet had not
created the creation.
ليس كمثله شىء وھو السميع البصير
This means: Absolutely nothing is like Him and He is Attributed with Hearing and
When Allah spoke to Musa He spoke to him with His Eternal Speech. All His
Eternal Attributes are different from the attributes of the creations. He Knows unlike
our knowing, He is Powerful unlike our powerfulness, He Sees unlike our seeing,
He Hears unlike our hearing, He Speaks unlike our speech. We speak with
instruments and letters but Allah, the Exalted, Speaks without an instrument and
without letters. The letters are created and the Speech of Allah is not created. He is a
Thing unlike other things.
The meaning of a Thing is that His existence is confirmed– clear of bodily attributes, a jawhar-atom of a body, an ^arad-quality of a body, a limit, an opposite, a rival, a similar. He is Attributed with Yad, Wajh, and Nafs. What Allah mentioned in the Qur’an about the Yad, Wajh, Nafs refer to that they are His Attributes without a manner of being6. His Yad is His Attribute without a manner of being. His Ghadab7 and Rida8 are two of His Attributes without a manner of being.
Allah created the things from no other thing. Allah Knew in Eternity about all things
before they were created. Allah Decreed and Created these things. Nothing happens
in this world and the Hereafter except by His Will, Knowledge, Creating, and
Destining and He ordered all of it be Written in the Guarded Tablet (attribute wise
and not judgment wise). Creating, Destining and Will are His Attributes in Eternity
without a manner of being.
Allah knows the non-existent thing while in the state of non-existence as nonexistent.
He knows how it would be had He created it. Allah Knows the existent
while in the state of existence as existent. He knows how its annihilation would be.
Allah knows the one who is standing, while standing up, as standing up and if one
sits He Knows one is sitting while in the state of sitting. All of this is without the
Knowledge of Allah changing or Him acquiring knowledge. The change and the
different situations occur in the creations.
Allah created the creations empty of blasphemy or belief and then He spoke to them
and ordered and prohibited them. The one who blasphemed did so by ones own
action and disbelieving in the existence of Allah, all out of Allah’s Will to deprive
one of goodness. The one who believed did so by ones own action, admittance and
belief, all out of Allah’s Will to guide one to goodness and of support to one.
He took out the offspring of Adam, peace be upon him, from his back in forms as
tiny as the small red ants and made them mindful. He spoke to them and ordered
them to believe and prohibited them from blasphemy. They admitted to Him that He
is the Owner of all things and thus were established as believers, hence they are
born with Fitrah9. So after that, whoever blasphemes has in fact changed and altered
and whoever becomes a believer and believes has remained steadfast and lasted. He
did not force any of His creations to blaspheme or believe and did not create them
believers and blasphemers, rather He created them as persons; belief and blasphemy
are the doings of the slave. Allah Knows whoever blasphemes, while in the state of
blasphemy, as a blasphemer, and if one believes after that He knows him, while in
the state of belief, as a believer, without a change in the Knowledge and Attribute of
Allah. All the doings of the slaves among motion and rest, they truly acquire, and
Allah is their Creator, and all of them are by the Will, Knowledge, Creating and
Destining of Allah.
The acts of obedience no matter what they entail are due by the Order of Allah, the
Exalted, His Love10, Acceptance, Knowledge, Will, Creating and Destining. All the
sins are by His Knowledge, Creating, Destining and Will but not by His Love11,
Acceptance and Order.
All of the Prophets, sallallahu ^alayhim wa sallam, are clear of minor sins12,
enormous sins and abhorrent matters. Some errs and faults occurred from them.
Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, is His beloved,
slave, Prophet and Choicest. He did not worship an idol and did not associate
partners with Allah not for a blink of an eye. He never did commit a minor13 or a
The best of the people after the Prophets, sallallahu ^alayhim wa sallam, is Abu
Bakr As-Siddiq, may Allah accept his deeds, thereafter ^Umar Ibn Al-Khattab,
thereafter ^Uthman Ibn ^Affan, thereafter ^Ali Ibn Abi Talib, may Allah accept all of
their deeds and keep them strolling with truth and make us support them in the truth.
We do not speak ill of the companions and we do not judge a Muslim as a
blasphemer for any of the sins, even if enormous, unless one deems it lawful.
We do not remove him from the nomenclature of a believer, and call him truly a believer,
and he could be a believer committing iniquities but not a blasphemer.
Wiping over the Khuff-foot gear is sunnah14 and tarawih prayers in Ramadan are
Praying behind every pious and committer of iniquities is permissible.
We do not say that the believer is not harmed by sins, and we do not say that he
does not enter Hellfire, and we do not say that he remains therein forever even if he
used to be a blasphemer, as long as he departs this life as a believer.
We do not say
our good deeds are accepted and our sins are forgiven, as the Murji’ah15 say. But we
say the one who does a good deed, satisfying all its conditions and is clear of the
invalidating defects and matters and does not invalidate it by blasphemy and
apostasy until one departs this life, is a believer, and then Allah will not make it
wasted for him, rather He accepts it from him and rewards him for it.
Whatever sinsone commits less than associating partners with Allah and blasphemy and does not repent from them until he dies as a believer, then he is under the Will of Allah, if
Allah Wills, He will torture him in Hellfire and if He Wills forgives him and does
not torture him in Hellfire, fundamentally speaking.
Should insincerity infiltrate one of the deeds it nullifies its reward, and likewise
arrogance. Miracles are confirmed for the Prophets and the supernatural-karamas
doings are truthful for the highly pious-waliyys.The extraordinary doings that occur
from the likes of Iblis, Pharaoh and the Imposter, which were mentioned in the
religious reports that they happened or will happen, we do not call them miracles or
supernatural-karamas doings. Rather we call them fulfillment of needs for them,
because Allah fulfills the needs of His enemies with the purpose of leading them for
the punishment they deserve, and as a punishment for them, so they become
satisfied in deceit and exaggerate in sinning or blasphemy, and all of that is possible
Allah the Exalted was Eternally a Creator before He created things and was
Eternally a Sustainer before providing sustenance.
Allah the Exalted will be seen in the Hereafter. The believers will see Him while
they are in Paradise with their eyes without likening Allah to the creations, without a
manner of being, without a volume and there will not be a distance between Him
and His creations.
The belief is admitting and believing. The belief of the occupants of earth and
heavens does not increase or decrease as far as the One believed in is concerned,
and increases and decreases as far as ones degree of certainty and belief are
The believers are equal in the belief and excel in deeds. Islam is submitting and following the orders of Allah the exalted.
Linguistically there is a difference between belief and Islam, however, there is no belief without Islam and Islam does not exist without belief for they are together like the front and the back of the thing. The religion is a name that encompasses the belief, the Islam and the entire rules revealed to the prophets.
We know Allah with the knowledge that is due to Him and as per the Attributes He
Attributed to His Self. No one can worship Allah the worship due to Him that He is
entitled to, but rather one worships Him in fulfillment of His Orders and as He
The believers are equal16 about Allah in knowledge, certainty, reliance, love,
acceptance, fear, hopefulness, belief and differ in all what is less than this.
Allah, the exalted, is generous to His slaves and is Just. He might reward the slave
many folds of what he deserves out of His generosity, and might punish for the sin
out of His justice or forgive it out of His generosity.
The intercession of the Prophets, sallallahu ^alayhim wa sallam, is confirmed for the sinners and committers of enormous sins among the believers who deserve punishment.
Weighing the deeds on the Balance on the Day of Judgment is true and the
settlement of the dues between the plaintiffs and defendants is true, and it is
permissible that if they had no good deeds of their own, the sins of the other party
will be added to them.
The Basin of the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, is true. Paradise and Hellfire are now created and shall never annihilate, and the Huril^in-women shall never annihilate. The torture of Allah shall never annihilate and the reward of Allah lasts forever. Allah, the Exalted, guides whomever He willed out of His generosity, and makes misguided whomever He willed out of His Justice. Making one misguided entails depriving one of goodness; that is the slave will not be guided to the deeds that Allah accepts from one. This is justice from
Allah. Likewise, the punishment for the sin of the deprived one is justice from
It is not permissible to say that the Devil takes away the belief from the believing
slave forcefully and out of subjugation, rather we say the slave becomes lose with
the belief and if one leaves it at such an instance, the Devil takes it away from one.
The questioning of Munkar and Nakir is a true matter that takes place in the grave.
The return of the soul to the body of the slave in the grave is true. The pressing of
the grave and the torture therein is true for all the blasphemers and for some sinful
Proximity and being far from Allah are not matters of length or shortness of
distance, rather they are meanings pertaining to one being favored with acceptance
or deprived by being unaccepted. The one who is obedient is close to Him without a
manner of being, and the sinful one is far from Him without a manner of being.
Proximity, being far and coming forth fall on the supplicating one. Likewise, being
in the jiwar17 of Allah in Paradise and standing between His Yadayh18 are without a
manner of being.
The Qur’an was sent down onto the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, and is
written in the books. All the verses of the Qur’an are equal in merit and greatness,
except some have the merit of recitation and some have the merit of who is
mentioned in them.
Like the ayah of Al-Kursi, because who is mentioned in it is the Glory and greatness of Allah and His Attributes. Hence, two merits are combined in it, the merit of the recitation and the merit of who is mentioned in it.
Some of the verses have only the merit of reciting, such as the tale of the
blasphemers, so who is mentioned in it has no merit and they are the blasphemers.
Likewise, the Names and Attributes are equal in greatness and merit with no
excellence of one over the other between them.
Qasim, Tahir and Ibrahim were the sons of the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa
sallam. Fatimah, Ruqayyah, Zaynab, Umm Kulthum were all the daughters of the
Prophet sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, May Allah Accept the deeds of all of them.
If one is perplexed about something among the delicate matters of the science of
Tawhid19, one is ought to immediately believe what is correct about Allah, the
Exalted, until one finds a scholar and asks him, and one is not entitled to delay.
The news of the Ascension is true and the one who rejects it is deemed a misguided
The appearance of Gog and Magog, and the sunrise from the Westside,
and the decent of ^Isa, peace be upon him, from the sky, and the rest of the signs of
the Day of Judgment according to the authentic reports, are true and shall happen.
Allah, the Exalted, guides whomever He willed to a straight path.
The text of Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar for the great Imam Abu Hanifah, may Allah accept his
deeds, ends here. Some terms used here might be different due to the different copies of
1 The knowledge about Allah and His Messenger.
2 Destiny is used here to denote the things created by Allah whether good or evil. Allah creates these
things as per His Destining — an Eternal and Everlasting Attribute of Allah . Hence we do not say about
the Destining of Allah evil.
3 The status of existence without a beginning.
4 The status of existence without ending.
5 Refers to the Reality of Allah.
6 A manner of being refers to all what could be an attribute of the creation.
7 Ghadab is an Attribute of Allah pertaining to non-acceptance of deeds and punishment.
8 Rida is an Attribute of Allah pertaining to acceptance of deeds and reward.
9 Refers to the inherent readiness after birth to accept the call of Islam.
10 When Love is Attributed to Allah it refers to acceptance of deeds and reward and NOT emotions and
reactions; Allah is clear from that.
11 See footnote 5
12 This refers to the small abject sins that constitute meanness. It is possible for Prophets to commit
non abject small sins but they are guided to immediately repent from them before others follow their
13 See footnote 12
14 Recommended and not obligatory.
15 A well known deviant group who strayed in the matter of the Islamic creed.
16 That is fundamentally as far as the essence of the aforementioned matters is concerned.
17 Jiwar means one would be enjoying the endowments that Allah endows on one in Paradise—all
being owned by Allah .
18 Standing between His Yadahy reflect when one stands on the Day of Judgment to face the settlement
of ones account and to be judged.
19 The knowledge about Allah and His Messenger.
The blessed hair of Prophet Muhammad peace to be upon him, in Imam Abu Hanifa mosque Baghdad – Iraq
The grave of the great Imam Abu Hanifah